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Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters

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Author Sivanpillai R
ISBN13 9780123948472
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Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters provides an integrated look at major impacts to the Earth’s biosphere. Many of these are caused by diseases, algal blooms, insects, animals, species extinction, deforestation, land degradation, and comet and asteroid strikes that have important implications for humans.

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ISBN10 0123948479
ISBN13 9780123948472
Imprint Elsevier
Publisher Elsevier
No of pages 492
Binding Hardcover
Copyright Year 2015
Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters, 1st Edition
Dedication
Title and Description of the Cover Image
Contributors
Editorial Foreword
Acknowledgments
List of Reviewers
Chapter 1. Introduction to Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters
Chapter 2. Algal Blooms
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Historic Examples of HAB Incidents
2.3. HAB Incidents in Recent Decades
2.4. Economic Impacts of HABs
2.5. How Do Blooms Form?
2.6. Vulnerability
2.7. Mitigation
2.8. Preparedness
2.9. Response
2.10. (4f) Recovery
Chapter 3. Large-Scale Grasshopper Infestations on North American Rangeland and Crops
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Taxonomy
3.3. Basic Biology
3.4. Ecology
3.5. Grasshopper-Outbreak Damage
3.6. Long-term Damage
3.7. Past Grasshopper-Outbreak Management
3.8. Early Pesticide Control Efforts
3.9. Recent Outbreaks
Chapter 4. Locusts: An Introduction
Chapter 4.1. The Australian Plague Locust-Risk and Response
4.1.1. Introduction
4.1.2. Ecology of the Australian Plague Locust
4.1.3. Population Outbreaks
4.1.4. History of Locust Outbreaks and Control in Australia
4.1.5. Economic and Social Impacts
4.1.6. The Australian Plague Locust Commission and Current Approaches to Locust Management in Australia
4.1.7. The Risks and Hazards of Locust Control in Australia
4.1.8. Future Considerations
4.1.9. Conclusions
Chapter 4.2. Desert Locust
4.2.1. Monitoring and Forecasting
4.2.2. Technological Advances
4.2.3. Early Warning
4.2.4. Challenges
4.2.5. Conclusion
Chapter 4.3. Other Locusts
Chapter 5. Decline of Bees and Other Pollinators
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Land-Use Changes
5.3. Weather
5.4. Pest and Diseases
5.5. Climate Change
5.6. Pesticides
5.7. Other Causes
5.8. What Can Be Done?
Chapter 6. Bark Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality in the North American Rocky Mountains
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Effects of Bark Beetle Impacts
6.3. Summary
Chapter 7. Novel Approaches for Reversible Field Releases of Candidate Weed Biological Control Agents: Putting the Genie Back into the Bottle
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Brazilian Peppertree Case Study
7.3. Conclusion
Chapter 8. Animal Hazards-Their Nature and Distribution
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Animal Attacks
8.3. Animal Accidents
8.4. Diseases Contracted from Animals
8.5. Property Damage and Losses Caused by Animals
8.6. Summary
Chapter 9. Loss of Biodiversity: Concerns and Threats
9.1. Introduction
9.2. How Many Species?
9.3. Extinction Rates
9.4. Reasons for Concern
Chapter 10. Chronic Environmental Diseases: Burdens, Causes, and Response
10.1. What Is a Chronic Environmental Disease?
10.2. The Global Burden of Chronic Environmental Diseases
10.3. Causes of Chronic Environmental Diseases
10.4. Public Health Response
10.5. Conclusions
Chapter 11. Land Degradation and Environmental Change
11.a. Introduction
11.b. Indicators of Land Degradation
11.c. The Global Significance
11.d. Drivers
11.e. Conclusions
Chapter 11.1. Desertification
11.1.1. Historical Roots, Evolving Definitions, and Critiques of Desertification
11.1.2. Drylands and Their Variability
11.1.3. Physical, Climatic, and Anthropogenic Drivers of Desertification and Their Impacts
11.1.4. Approaches to Identifying Desertification
11.1.5. Discussion
11.1.6. Conclusions
Chapter 11.2. Grassland Degradation
11.2.1. Introduction
11.2.2. Benefits and Ecological Services
11.2.3. Grassland Degradation
11.2.4. Conclusions
Chapter 11.3. Land Degradation in Rangeland Ecosystems
11.3.1. Introduction
11.3.2. Definition and Extent of Rangeland Degradation
11.3.3. Causes of Rangeland Degradation
11.3.4. Indicators of Rangeland Degradation
11.3.5. Monitoring Rangeland Degradation
11.3.6. Restoration and the Degradation Spiral
11.3.7. Conclusions and Future Directions
Chapter 12. Deforestation
12.a. Definitions
12.b. Rates and Extent of Deforestation
12.c. Effects of Deforestation
Chapter 12.1. Deforestation in Southeast Asia
12.1.1. Long-Term Changes in Land Use in Southeast Asia
12.1.2. Impacts of Logging on the Environment
12.1.3. Impacts of Forest Fragmentation on the Environment
12.1.4. Impacts of Habitat Conversion on the Environment
12.1.5. Conservation Options
12.1.6. Conclusion
Chapter 12.2. Deforestation in Nepal: Causes, Consequences, and Responses
12.2.1. Introduction
12.2.2. Nepal
12.2.3. Forest Types in Nepal
12.2.4. Forest Status and Rate of Deforestation in Nepal
12.2.5. Causes of Deforestation in Nepal
12.2.6. Consequences of Deforestation in Nepal
12.2.7. Responses to Deforestation
12.2.8. Conclusions and Recommendations
Chapter 12.3. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon
12.3.1. Introduction
12.3.2. Theoretical Perspectives and Methods
12.3.3. The context of Chico Mendes' Murder
12.3.4. Amazonian Deforestation on the International Agenda
12.3.5. Deforestation Drivers and Mechanisms
12.3.6. Amazonian (Deforestation) Scales and Trends
Chapter 13. Ecological Impacts of Climate Change
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Observed Effects of Climate Change
13.3. Ecosystem Services
13.4. The Past and the Future
Chapter 14. Meteor Impact Hazard
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Planetary Evidence
14.3. Historical Record
14.4. Geologic Record
14.5. Surviving Meteor Craters
14.6. Origins and Properties of Asteroids, Meteoroids, and Comets
14.7. Hypervelocity Impact
14.8. Ocean Impact
14.9. New Earth Asteroids
14.10. Evaluation of Impact Hazard and Mitigation
Index